The diffraction of light is an optical phenomena that is frequently observed in nature. This chapter explores diffraction, first as it occurs with light in nature, then as it occurs with X-rays in mineral crystals. X-ray diffraction and electron diffraction are used in mineral identification and are used to determine the atomic structure of mineral crystals. The instrumentation involved in X-ray and electron diffraction is examined and the interpretation of the data is explained. Finally, this chapter examines the mathematics of diffraction.
Topics covered in Chapter 15 include:
• Light Diffraction
• Reciprocal Lattices and d-spacings
• "Reflection" of X-rays
• Diffraction Theory
• Generation of X-rays
• Diffraction by Lattices
• Systematic Absences
• Instrumentation for Single-Crystal Diffraction
• Diffraction by Example Structures
• Identification by Powder Diffraction
• Integration of Powder and Single-Crystal Diffraction
This Mineralogy and Optical Mineralogy Series is specifically designed to take full advantage of digital media technology to empower students and teachers of mineralogy. Using color photographs, illustrations, movies, 3D models that can be rotated, interactive diagrams, and review questions, this series makes a challenging subject approachable. Also, each chapter in the series is available separately allowing the reader to pick and choose only those chapters they need for their specific course.